Course: Biotechnological Methods in Plant Breeding

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Course title Biotechnological Methods in Plant Breeding
Course code KGZB/BTMSR
Organizational form of instruction Lecture + Lesson
Level of course Master
Year of study 2
Semester Summer
Number of ECTS credits 6
Language of instruction Czech
Status of course Compulsory
Form of instruction unspecified
Work placements unspecified
Recommended optional programme components None
Lecturer(s)
  • Čurn Vladislav, prof. Ing. Ph.D.
  • Beran Pavel, Ing. Ph.D.
Course content
Definition of plant biotechnology. History of plant cultures in vitro. Plant cell, organ and tissue cultures in vitro. Principles of aseptic manipulation with plant material, facilities in biotechnological laboratory. Nutrition requirements of in vitro cultures. Hormonal composition of cultivation media. Physical conditions of cultivation, solid and liquid media. Cell and suspension cultures. Regulation of morphogenesis in cultures in vitro, regeneration via organogenesis, somatic embryogenesis and androgenesis. Genetic and phenotypic variation of in vitro cultures, epigenetic changes, in vitro selection, somaclonal variation. Haploid cultures, androgenesis, gynogenesis, cultures of anthers and microspores. Genetic manipulation with plant cell. Cultures of plant protoplasts. Biotechnological approaches in plant breeding. Methods conserving stability of genotype, biotechnological methods for increasing genetic variability. Biotechnology regulations. Methods of cryopreservation.

Learning activities and teaching methods
Monologic (reading, lecture, briefing)
  • Preparation for credit - 25 hours per semester
  • Preparation for exam - 50 hours per semester
  • Semestral paper - 50 hours per semester
  • Class attendance - 56 hours per semester
Learning outcomes
The aim of the course is to master the basic principles of aseptic manipulation of plant material in vitro, to clarify the physiology and genetics of plant tissue cultures and lectures are also focused on practical application of biotechnological methods in breeding of main crops, garden and ornamental plants and trees. Historical overview of the development of the methodology of plant explant cultures. Aseptic cultures of plants, embryos, organs, tissues, cells, protoplasts. Principles of aseptic handling of plant material. Nutrition of explant cultures. Hormonal demands of cultures. Physical conditions of cultivation. Regulation of morphogenesis. Basic regeneration processes. Genetic and phenotypic variability of explant cultures. Karyological instabilities, selection of mutant cell lines. Somaclonal variability. Production and use of haploid cultures and regenerants. Genetic manipulation of a plant cell. Protoplast cultures, somatic hybridization. Cryopreservation. Possibilities and perspectives of using biotechnologies in plant breeding (cereals, legumes, oilseeds, potatoes and root crops, clover and forage grasses, vegetables, hops, ornamental plants, biotechnology in forestry and small fruits and fruit trees).
Students are able to orientate in the field of application of in vitro techniques in plant breeding
Prerequisites
Standard knowledge of biology and plant physiology

Assessment methods and criteria
Oral examination

Active participation in exercises, protocols from laboratory exercises, understanding the curriculum defined for the exam.
Recommended literature
  • Čurn,V. Molekulární markery ve šlechtění rostlin. České Budějovice,ZF JU, 2005.
  • Čurn,V. Šlechtění zemědělských plodin. České Budějovice, ZF JU, 2005.
  • Čurn,V. Šlechtění zemědělských plodin. České Budějovice,ZF JU, 2006.
  • Graman,J.,Čurn.V. Šlechtění rostli. 1998.
  • Hoffmann,W. et al. Lehrbuch der Pflanzenzuchtung landwirtschaft. Kulturpflanzen,B.2.Berlin,Hamburg,Paul Parey, 1985.
  • Chloupek,O. Genetická diverzita, šlechtění a semenářství. Praha, Academia, 2008.
  • Richards,A.J. Plant breeding systems. Chapman and Hall London, 1997.


Study plans that include the course
Faculty Study plan (Version) Category of Branch/Specialization Recommended year of study Recommended semester
Faculty: Faculty of Agriculture Study plan (Version): Agricultural Biotechnology (2017) Category: Agriculture and forestry 2 Recommended year of study:2, Recommended semester: Summer