Course: Animal Physiology

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Course title Animal Physiology
Course code KZO/230
Organizational form of instruction Lecture + Lesson
Level of course Bachelor
Year of study not specified
Frequency of the course In each academic year, in the summer semester.
Semester Summer
Number of ECTS credits 8
Language of instruction Czech
Status of course Compulsory-optional
Form of instruction unspecified
Work placements unspecified
Recommended optional programme components None
Lecturer(s)
  • Košťál Vladimír, prof. Ing. CSc.
  • Rozsypal Jan, RNDr. Ph.D.
  • Okrouhlík Jan, Mgr. Ph.D.
  • Kodrík Dalibor, prof. RNDr. CSc.
  • Černý Jan, Mgr.
  • Černý Jan, Mgr.
  • Hlávková Daniela, Mgr.
Course content
Content of lectures: Body fluids - Water as an universal solvent, ions, metabolites and macromolecules. Composition of blood, interstitial fluid and intracellular solutions. Biological membranes, epithelia, transport systems, transport ATPases. Circulation - Open and closed circulatory systems, evolution. Heart function, regulation of cardiac output. Blood pressure, venous system, vasoconstriction and dilatation. Haematopoiesis and blood coagulation. Lymphatic system, thymus and spleen. Excretion -Evolution and environmental constrains. Function of kidney, nephrons. Homeostatic functions, osmolarity, ionic composition, pH. Excretion of nitrous compounds, regulation of kidney function. Digestion - Evolution of digestive systems. Functional anatomy of the vertebrate alimentary tract. Enzymatic digestion of basic foodstuffs, liver and gallbladder, pancreas. Absorption, intestine motility and secretions, enteric nerve system, tissue hormones. Energy - energetic balance of an animal. Energy production, glycolysis, ß-oxidation, amino acids, fermentation pathways, aerobic metabolism, Krebs cycle, oxidative phosphorylation. Balance of ATP production and consumption. Heat production, endothermy, regulation of body temperature. Respiration - evolution and anatomy of respiratory systems. Function of lungs. Transport of gases, respiratory pigments, saturation curves and modifications. Regulation of ventilation. Neural regulation - neuron and glial cells, ion channels, potentials, gradients, synapse, mediators, neuromodulators, depolarization and hyperpolarisation. Senses - receptors and information coding, chemoreceptors, mechanoreceptors including hearing, statokinetic sense, special senses, photoreception, compound arthropod eye, vertebrate eye, optical apparatus, receptor cells, mechanisms of visual perception. Physiological principles of movement - cilia and flagella, kinesin, amoeboid movement, striated muscle contract: neuromuscular junction, muscle fibers, sarcomere, actin, myosin, troponin and tropomyosin, smooth and cardiac muscle, fish swimbladder, insect synchronous and asynchronous muscles. Nervous system and its function - animal nervous systems, insect brain, vertebrate and human CNS: brain and spinal cord, functional anatomy of human brain, neopallium and its function, neural control of skeletal muscles, peripheral neural net, vegetative system: sympathicus and parasympathicus, integration role of CNS: reflexes, instincts, learning, memory, biorhythms, sleep. Endocrine system - control systems of animal organism, hormones and their functions: chemical structures, receptors, mode of action, second messengers, inactivation of hormones, hierarchy, hormonal system in crustaceans and insects, human endocrine system: hypothalamus and the pituitary gland system and other endocrine glands, sex hormones, hormonal control of reproduction, gravidity, birth, tissue hormones. Practical exercises: 1. Manometric determination of oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production in insects 2. Measurement of oxygen consumption in fish 3. Measurement of oxygen consumption in mammals human 4. Measurement of oxygen consumption in mammals rodents 5. Effect of muscle work on cardiovascular functions 6. Effect of muscle work on cardiovascular functions ECG 7. Effect of carbon dioxide consumption on breathing frequency 8. Insect endocrinology - effect of adipokinetic hormone on lipid mobilization from the fat body in insects

Learning activities and teaching methods
Monologic (reading, lecture, briefing), Laboratory
  • Preparation for exam - 60 hours per semester
Learning outcomes
This is an introductory course of animal physiology including some comments on human physiology. The focus is on description of individual functions, their mechanisms and on their interactions, particularly with environmental constrains. Comments on phylogeny of functions and their modifications caused by the mode of life of the species are included where appropriate. Chapters do not necessarily correspond to weekly lectures.
Students will acquire the basic knowledge about the function of individual tissues, organs and organ systems in animal/human body. The mechanisms of the processes are explained at the molecular, biochemical and physiological levels. In the practical exercises students will become familiar with handling the animals and with the measurement of their basic physiological parameters (see syllabus).
Prerequisites
Recommended course: Biochemistry I, UCH/036

Assessment methods and criteria
Oral examination, Development of laboratory protocols

For the exam passing at least 60 percent success is required
Recommended literature
  • Alberts B. a kol. (2001) Základy buněčné biologie - Úvod do molekulární biologie buňky, Espero Publishing, Ústí nad Labem.
  • Hill R.W., Wyse G.A., Anderson M. (2012) Animal Physiology, Sunderland, MA, USA, 3. vydání.
  • Hruška M. (1994) Fyziologie živočichů a člověka - 1. a 2. díl, Gaudeamus, Vysoká škola pedagogická, Hradec Králové.
  • Randall D., Burggren W., French K. (2002) Eckert Animal Physiology, W.H. Freeman and Company, New York, 5th edition.
  • Rokyta R., Šťastný F.,(2002) Struktura a funkce lidského těla, Tigris spol. s r. o., Praha , 1. vydání.
  • Vácha M., Bičík V., Petrásek R., Šimek V., Kellnerová I. (2004) Srovnávací fyziologie živočichů, Přírodovědecká fakulta MU, Brno (http://www.sci.muni.cz/ksfz/vyuka.html).


Study plans that include the course
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