Course: Hydrophysics and Hydropedology

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Course title Hydrophysics and Hydropedology
Course code UA/HFHPK
Organizational form of instruction Lecture + Lesson
Level of course Bachelor
Year of study 2
Semester Winter
Number of ECTS credits 5
Language of instruction Czech
Status of course Compulsory
Form of instruction Face-to-face
Work placements This is not an internship
Recommended optional programme components None
  • Šír Miloslav, Ing. CSc.
Course content
1. Fluid mechanics, newtonian and non-newtonian fluids, continuity equation, equations of motion, state function, constitutive equation, Eulerian and Lagrangian mechanics. 2. Hydrostatic and hydrodynamic powers, hydrostatic and hydrodynamic paradox; laminar, turbine, and vortex cavitations; Bernoulli equation. 3. Filling and emtpying of vessels and tanks; outflow through opening, outflow under floodgate; surface level and capacity level; transformation of flood wave in a tank. 4. Flow in the open stream bed; Chézy formula; measuring of stream beds; spillways and overflows, Bazins formula, diversion weirs on watercourses. 5. Flow coefficient; hydraulic jump; Smetanas equation; lowering of kinetic energy of water. 6. Flow in pressure and non-pressure piping; Manning formula; transmission losses and their reduction, line of energy; measuring of pressure and non-pressure piping. 7. Hydraulic solution in dams; effects of hydrauilic pressure; measurements of drainage outfall and safety spillway; transformation of big water tanks. 8. Hydrophysical quanttities of soil; soil moisture and moisture potential; moist measurement and hygrometers; strain factor, water strain gauge, retention curve; soil hydromorphism; hydrostatistics of soil water. 9. Hydrodynamics of soil water; Darcy-Buckingham law, Richards equation; diffusion and destabilized flow; entropy in soil water movement 10. Infiltration of water into soil, redistribution of soil water, absorption of soil water in plant root systems, outflow of soil water into bedrock or groundwater. 11. Evapotation from soil and plant surfaces, plant transpiration, evapotranspiration; absorption of sunshine and thermal radiation; entropy in evapotranspiration. Water balance of small river basins. 12. Water and thermal regimes in soil and river basins, classification of water and thermal regimes; hydraulic, hydropedologic, and thermal bases of hydrologic cycle; hydromelioration and its effect on water regime. 13. Imballanced hydrodynamics and thermodynamics; dissipative structures, hydrophysical machanisms of entropy and phytomass production; self-organization and evolution of water and temperature cycle on various time and spatial scales; Maximum Enthropy Production (EMP) hypothesis. 14. Coevolution of soil, plants, and climate in terms of water and temperature shifts in nature; short-term and long-term influences of water and hydromeliorative structures on coevolution; hydrophysical and hydropedologic mechanism of soil desertification and degradation, leaching of nutrients, eutrophication, water retention and outflow retardation.

Learning activities and teaching methods
Monologic (reading, lecture, briefing), Dialogic (discussion, interview, brainstorming)
  • Preparation for classes - 25 hours per semester
  • Class attendance - 42 hours per semester
  • Preparation for credit - 20 hours per semester
  • Preparation for exam - 25 hours per semester
  • Semestral paper - 10 hours per semester
Learning outcomes
The course aims to familiarize students with physical quantities of water, with principles of water movement in natural environment and in technical objects of water and hydromelioration structures. The course focuses on gaining abilities for water management, on understanding connections between water movement in soil, plants, and watercourses, relied to water quality. The student learns to prepare water evaluation of a small river basin and to design hydraulic parameters of water and hydromelioration structures.
Successful graduates of the course will master the basics of hydrophysics and hydropedology to understand the mechanisms of spreading solutes with water and soil. They will be able to apply this knowledge in water and soil protection from contamination and qualitative degradation. Course graduates will be familiar with the basics of hydraulics, which is a prerequisite for the following water management courses: Landscape water regime, Water management, Diffuse sources of water pollution.
The subject has no prerequisites. The recommended prerequisite for successful completion of the course is the following: Geology and soil science. Minimum requirement for students is knowledge of secondary school mathematics, physics and chemistry.

Assessment methods and criteria
Oral examination, Combined exam, Test

Student has to master physics and mathematics of the introductory university course.
Recommended literature
  • Jandora, J., Stará, V., Starý, M. Hydraulika a hydrologie. CERM Brno, 2011.
  • Kolář, V., Patočka, C., Bém, J. Hydraulika. SNTL/ALFA Praha, 1983.
  • Kutílek, M., Nielsen, R. Soil hydrology. Catena-Verlag in Cermlingen-Destedt, 1994.
  • Kutílek, M. Vodohospodářská pedologie. SNTL/ALFA Praha, 1978.
  • Pokorná, D., Zábranská, J. Hydrologie a hydropedeologie. VŠCHT Praha, 2008.
  • Pokorný, J. Vodní stavby - Stavby v rybníkářství. Informatorium Praha, 2009.

Study plans that include the course
Faculty Study plan (Version) Category of Branch/Specialization Recommended year of study Recommended semester
Faculty: Faculty of Fisheries and Protection of Waters Study plan (Version): Protection of Waters (2020) Category: Ecology and environmental protection 2 Recommended year of study:2, Recommended semester: Winter
Faculty: Faculty of Fisheries and Protection of Waters Study plan (Version): Protection of Waters (2021) Category: Ecology and environmental protection 2 Recommended year of study:2, Recommended semester: Winter