Lecturer(s)


Předota Milan, doc. RNDr. Ph.D.

Course content

Content of lectures: Postulates of thermodynamics, thermodynamic potentials, phase transitions, statistical ensembles, quantum statistics, MaxwellBoltzmann distribution, theory of heat capacities, radiation of black body 1. State and process variables, temperature, heat, heat conduction 2. First law of thermodynamics, work, equation of state of ideal and real gas, reversible and irreversible processes 3. Isothermic, isochoric, isobaric and adiabatic processes, polytropic process. 4. Second law of thermodynamics, various formulations, thermodynamic machines, cyclic process, Carnot cycle 5. Thermodynamic potential, entropy, Third law of thermodynamics, methods to achieve low temperatures 6. Maxwell relations and their applications, the relationship between the calorimetric and thermal equation of state, thermal capacity. 7. Thermodynamic equilibrium, thermodynamics of multiphase and multicomponent systems. Phase transitions. Phase, phase transition of the first and second kind. 8. Gibbs phase rule. Clausius  Clapeyron equation. Saturated and superheated steam. The phase diagram. 9. Chemical equilibrium. Chemical reactions from the thermodynamic point of view. 10. The kinetic theory. Molecular chaos, Brownian motion. Maxwell distribution of particle velocities. Equipartition theorem. Microscopic interpretation of pressure and temperature. Mean characteristics of the motion of molecules (mean velocity, mean free path, mean number of collisions ). 11. Transport phenomena in gases (diffusion, internal friction, thermal conductivity). Van der Waals forces. 12. Basic concepts of statistical physics. Configuration, momentum and phase space. Statistical ensembles. Partition function. 13. Partition function and the expression of the free energy and internal energy of the system. The statistical definition of entropy. 14. Statistical ensembles: microcanonical, canonical and grandkanonical. 15. The statistical distributions : FermiDirac, BoseEinstein and MaxwellBoltzmann. Fermions and bosons. 16. Statistical calculations: the photon gas and Planck's radiation law. The heat capacity of the crystal (Einstein and Debye model ). Content of practicals: Calculations accompanying the content of the lectures.

Learning activities and teaching methods

Monologic (reading, lecture, briefing), Dialogic (discussion, interview, brainstorming)
 Class attendance
 56 hours per semester
 Preparation for credit
 8 hours per semester
 Preparation for exam
 8 hours per semester

Learning outcomes

Introduce students to thermodynamics and clasical and quantum statistical physics. Explain how deterministic behavior of macrosystems stems from the molecular chaos.
Understanding of the thermodynamic behavior, both macroscopically and microscopically. Ability to calculate thermodynamic processes  heat conduction, calorimetry, thermal machines, phase transitions, chemical reactions, changes of quantities in thermodynamic processes.

Prerequisites

Completetion of UFY/FYZ1

Assessment methods and criteria

Systematic student observation, Combined exam
Criteria for obtaining the course credit (zápočet): At least 50% active participation at exercises, at least 50% points from the final test (calculation of exercises). Criterium for passing the exam: At least 50% knowledge of the topic contained in the two drawn test questions.

Recommended literature


Blažek, J.:. Úvod do termodynamiky a statistické fyziky. České Budějovice, PF JU, 1993.

OBDRŽÁLEK, J.  VANĚK, A.:. Řešené příklady z termodynamiky a molekulové fyziky, Ústí nad Labem, UJEP, 1998.

Obdržálek, J.  Vaněk, A.:. Termodynamika a molekulová fyzika. Ústí nad Labem, UJEP, 1996.

Svoboda, E.  Bakule, R.:. Molekulová fyzika. Praha, Academia, 1992.
